What is a DAO?

DAO stands for Decentralised Autonomous Organisation and with the invention of blockchain technology, in a nut shell, has allowed a group of people to make decisions where trust is placed within the technology and the blockchain network.

What is DAOStack?

From their whitepaper, DAOstack defines themselves as “an operating system for DAOs”. From their website, “DAOstack is an open source project advancing the technology and adoption of decentralized governance.

Both these definitions don’t mean much to beginner so to explain it another way, DAOstack is a “stack” or a group of technologies that has been invented using smart contracts and blockchain technologies to…


Update: Check out the webinar recording of this article here covering on the technical overview of Stablecoins, their place in the cryptocurrency space, and potential use cases.

There are plenty of articles, blogs and videos explaining what stablecoins are and how they work but they all define stablecoins in their own unique way and most confusing of all, categorise them differently with different terminology. Here, we’ll attempt to bring some clarity.

What is the definition of a Stablecoin?

There are lots of different ways to define stablecoins and it is often useful to appreciate these different definitions to help in your own understanding. Here are some examples:


How to pronounce 2²⁵⁶?

2²⁵⁶ is pronounced “two to the power of two hundred and fifty six”.

What does it represent?

Computers represent numbers in binary. Below is an example where we have 2 bits, and each bit can represent a ‘1’ or a ‘0’ allowing us to produce 4 possible combinations:

00 = 0
01 = 1
10 = 2
11 = 3

The formula “2 to the power of the number of bits” gives us the range of numbers that we can represent. So 2² equals 4, which is true from the table above where we have 4 possible values. …


Without the humble node, networks would not exist. If networks did not exist, blockchains would not exist. Let us pay our respects to the humble nodes on a blockchain network by understanding what they are, the various types and their purpose, and how to set one up.

What is a node?

In a computer network, each computer that forms part of the network is referred to as a node. These nodes come in different flavours and perform different tasks. Depending on the requirements of the network, nodes can be small Raspberry Pi devices, regular computers, or large powerful servers.

To provide stability to a…


When there is a new shiny technology in town, prancing around and making exorbitant claims, it is easy to dismiss it and pass it off. But when the technology sticks around, and a crowd starts gathering, maybe it’s time to check it out and see if does what it says it does. Furthermore, why not take it for a drive and prove the concepts for yourself? In this article we look at the relevance of PoC’s, how we can assess them, and what the next steps are after a successful PoC.

PoC stands for Proof of Concept and is popular…


I’ve been trying to understand what Byzantine Fault Tolerance means for almost a year now and slowly peeling off the layers of the onion to understand better but I’m probably still only a quarter of the way there. In this article I will try to explain BFT in a different way.

From the dictionary

One of the main challenges for me in understanding BFT is understanding the word itself. What does Byzantine actually mean? The Oxford dictionary defines it as:

  • Relating to Byzantium (now the Istanbul), the Byzantine Empire, or the Eastern Orthodox Church
  • (of a system or situation) Excessively complicated
  • Characterised by…


For thousands of years human societies have had consensus protocols running implicitly allowing for shared traditions, shared cultures and shared languages but what exactly are consensus protocols? Where did they come from and what are the different types? This article will answer these questions and also highlight some of the differences.

What is a consensus protocol?

Consensus protocols are essentially rules that allow a group of computers to agree on the state of something. In the real world, for example, deciding what movie to watch with a group of friends on a Friday night would involve some sort of consensus…


Blockchain governance is often described as a very important but is an often overlooked aspect of blockchain-based technology. In this article we look at what blockchain governance is, why it is important, on-chain versus off-chain governance and some examples of blockchains implementing it.

What is blockchain governance?

Governance refers to the establishment of policies, decision making processes and the monitoring of their proper implementation all within a system. A governance model describes the process by which stakeholders can agree on decisions impacting their shared interest in the protocol.

In the blockchain world, code via smart contracts often describes the rules…


If you initially thought a blockchain oracle was a Larry Ellison backed initiative to enter the blockchain space, you probably aren’t the only one. In the blockchain world though, an oracle is something very different. In this article we’ll explore what an oracle is in the context of blockchains, how they work, why they are useful and also look at the different types of oracles.

What is an oracle?

According to various online dictionaries, an oracle can be defined as an “authoritative or wise expression or answer” or “a person or thing regarded as an infallible authority on something”. …


If you’ve heard about Hashgraph and wondered how to get started, here is a little guide based off the docs provided in the SDK. Running the demo is easy but preparing your system can take a little bit of time. (Just like cooking!)

A good place to start is https://www.hederahashgraph.com/ where you can read a bit about it but there is a section for developers which points you to https://dev.hashgraph.com/ which is where the good stuff is.

There is a “How do I get started?” section which is where you … start. The instructions are at: https://dev.hashgraph.com/docs/installation/

Step 1: JDK 8

You need at…

Sean

#BlockchainTrainer, #Tokenomics #STEM, http://theicotrain.com

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store